The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN, /ˈaɪkćn/ EYE-kan) is a nonprofit organization that is responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation. ICANN performs the actual technical maintenance work of the central Internet address pools and DNS root zone registries pursuant to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) function contract. The contract regarding the IANA stewardship functions between ICANN and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) of the United States Department of Commerce ended on October 1, 2016, formally transitioning the functions to the global multi-stakeholder community.
Much of its work has concerned the Internet's global Domain Name System (DNS), including policy development for internationalization of the DNS system, introduction of new generic top-level domains (TLDs), and the operation of root name servers. The numbering facilities ICANN manages include the Internet Protocol address spaces for IPv4 and IPv6, and assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries. ICANN also maintains registries of Internet Protocol identifiers.
ICANN's primary principles of operation have been described as helping preserve the operational stability of the Internet; to promote competition; to achieve broad representation of the global Internet community; and to develop policies appropriate to its mission through bottom-up, consensus-based processes.
ICANN was created on September 18, 1998, and incorporated on September 30, 1998, in the state of California. It is headquartered in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles.
One task that ICANN was asked to do was to address the issue of domain name ownership resolution for generic top-level domains (gTLDs). ICANN's attempt at such a policy was drafted in close cooperation with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), and the result has now become known as the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP). This policy essentially attempts to provide a mechanism for rapid, cheap and reasonable resolution of domain name conflicts, avoiding the traditional court system for disputes by allowing cases to be brought to one of a set of bodies that arbitrate domain name disputes. According to ICANN policy, a domain registrant must agree to be bound by the UDRP—they cannot get a domain name without agreeing to this.
Examination of the UDRP decision patterns has caused some to conclude that compulsory domain name arbitration is less likely to give a fair hearing to domain name owners asserting defenses under the First Amendment and other laws, compared to the federal courts of appeal in particular.
In 2013, the initial report of ICANN's Expert Working Group has recommended that the present form of Whois, a utility that allows anyone to know who has registered a domain name on the Internet, should be "abandoned". It recommends it be replaced with a system that keeps most registration information secret (or "gated") from most Internet users, and only discloses information for "permissible purposes". ICANN's list of permissible purposes includes domain name research, domain name sale and purchase, regulatory enforcement, personal data protection, legal actions, and abuse mitigation. Whois has been a key tool of investigative journalists interested in determining who was disseminating information on the Internet. The use of whois by the free press is not included in the list of permissible purposes in the initial report.
Since its creation, ICANN has been the subject of criticism and controversy. In 2000, professor Michael Froomkin of the University of Miami School of Law argued that ICANN's relationship with the U.S. Department of Commerce is illegal, in violation of either the Constitution or federal statutes. In 2009, the new Affirmation of Commitments agreement between ICANN and the U.S. Department of Commerce, that aimed to create international oversight, ran into criticism.
During December 2011, the Federal Trade Commission stated ICANN had long failed to provide safeguards that protect consumers from online swindlers.
Also during 2011, seventy-nine companies, including
The Coca-Cola Company,
others, signed a petition against ICANN's new TLD program (sometimes referred to
as a "commercial landgrab"),
in a group organized by the
Association of National Advertisers.
As of September 2014, this group, the
Coalition for Responsible Internet Domain Oversight, that opposes the
rollout of ICANN's TLD expansion program, has been joined by 102 associations
and 79 major companies.
Partly as a response to this criticism, ICANN initiated an effort to protect
in domain name registrations, which eventually culminated in the establishment
*Please note that these Highlights are from the latest Oil Market Report, which is released in full to subscribers only - according to this schedule each month. Non subscribers get free access to the latest Highlights on this schedule, however the full Oil Market Report is released to the public two weeks after the report is released to subscribers. If you would like to receive the full report with accompanying charts and graphs on the day of publication please subscribe or contact the subscription manager.
|OPEC has agreed to cut output by 1.2 mb/d from January 2017 and secured a reduction of 558 kb/d from non-OPEC.As OPEC was deciding to cut production, its crude output in November was 34.2 mb/d, a record high, and 300 kb/d higher than in October. The group’s output stood 1.4 mb/d higher than a year ago.|
|Additional cuts in support of OPEC were agreed by non-OPEC countries, led by Russia. They are expected to curb 2017 growth from non-OPEC producers just over 0.2 mb/d from our previous estimate of 0.5 mb/d.|
|Global oil supplies in November edged up to a record high 98.2 mb/d, as a drop in non-OPEC output was more than offset by higher OPEC production.|
|Global oil demand growth of 1.4 mb/d is foreseen for 2016, 120 kb/d above our previous forecast. Robust 3Q16 US demand numbers and methodological changes for China were the main factors. Growth in 2017 is now seen at 1.3 mb/d.|
|OECD commercial inventories fell in October for the third month in a row. They have drawn 75 mb since reaching a historical high in July, but remain 300 mb above the five-year average. Product stocks have fallen twice as quickly as crude during that period. Preliminary data show stocks falling further across the OECD in November.|
|Refinery crude intake in 1Q17 is forecast to grow by only a modest 310 kb/d y-o-y, after growing by only 350 kb/d growth in 4Q16. The rally in crude prices following the announcement of coordinated OPEC/non-OPEC action may further squeeze refining margins, prompting product stock draws first on the way to market re-balancing.|
|Benchmark crude prices reversed their losses seen in November and rose by $10/bbl following the decision by OPEC and non-OPEC to cut output. Light sweet crude oil underperformed sour grades and this may well continue in the early part of next year. Fuel oil and naphtha were well supported due to higher Asian|
The final Report of 2016 analyses events as dramatic as those that kicked off the year. The focus in January was on $30/bbl oil and the imminent increase in Iranian oil production after sanctions were lifted. In December, we are seeing the first proposed output cut by OPEC since 2008 – and the first deal including non-OPEC producers since 2001 – which marks a major departure from the market share policy followed for the past two years. OPEC’s cut to crude production of 1.2 mb/d almost matches its deliberate production increase of 1.3 mb/d in the twelve months to October (the month on which the OPEC cuts are based), while the non-OPEC group has seen its crude output fall in the same period by about 0.9 mb/d. Meanwhile, following revisions to Chinese and Russian data, we have raised our 2016 global net demand growth number to 1.4 mb/d and that for 2017 to 1.3 mb/d.
Before the agreement among producers, our demand and supply numbers suggested that the market would re-balance by the end of 2017. But OPEC, Russia and other producers are looking to speed up the process. If OPEC promptly and fully sticks to its production target, assessed at 32.7 mb/d, and non-OPEC producers deliver the agreed cuts of 558 kb/d outlined on 10 December, then the market is likely to move into deficit in the first half of 2017 by an estimated 0.6 mb/d. This is not a forecast by the IEA, it is an assumption based on the numbers in OPEC’s 30 November agreement, subsequently reinforced by the non-OPEC producers.
After the first half of 2017, the analysis is complicated by the fact that the proposed cut is for six months, and will be reviewed at the next OPEC ministerial meeting at the end of May. This can be seen as prudent given the underlying uncertainties in the oil market and the global economy but also a warning that production restraint might not be extended. The price curve reflects this with a sharp increase in short-term prices but shows relatively little movement further out. OPEC also appears to be signalling that high-cost producers should not take for granted that they will receive a free ride to higher production. These high-cost producers, who assume that the cuts at the very least guarantee a floor under prices, might think twice before taking the risk of sanctioning new investments.
Clearly, the next few weeks will be crucial in determining if the
production cuts are being implemented and whether the recent increase in
oil prices will last. For contractual and logistical reasons, we might
initially see that the output cuts do not fall neatly into place. The
deal is for six months and we should allow time for it to be implemented
before re-assessing our market outlook. Success means the reinforcement
of prices and revenue stability for producers after two difficult years;
failure risks starting a fourth year of stock builds and a possible
return to lower prices. What a difference a year makes!
RED STATE - Where's the Blue (D) = NO SHOW
53217 - Wisconsin State Legislature Assembly District 23 Jim Ott (R) Ran unopposed (D) = NO SHOW
Senate District 8 Alberta Darling (R) Ran unopposed (D) = NO SHOW
The Minnesota Viking Cheerleaders AKA Viqueens
What happens if a Viqueen and Viking try and have children together?
Can they make Twins?
The probability is no.
However the changes of there children being a Royal is 100%